# Book 10 Proposition 103

Ἡ τῇ ἀποτομῇ μήκει σύμμετρος ἀποτομή ἐστι καὶ τῇ τάξει ἡ αὐτή. Ἔστω ἀποτομὴ ἡ ΑΒ, καὶ τῇ ΑΒ μήκει σύμμετρος ἔστω ἡ ΓΔ: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΓΔ ἀποτομή ἐστι καὶ τῇ τάξει ἡ αὐτὴ τῇ ΑΒ. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἀποτομή ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ, ἔστω αὐτῇ προσαρμόζουσα ἡ ΒΕ: αἱ ΑΕ, ΕΒ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι. καὶ τῷ τῆς ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ λόγῳ ὁ αὐτὸς γεγονέτω ὁ τῆς ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ: καὶ ὡς ἓν ἄρα πρὸς ἕν, πάντα [ἐστὶ] πρὸς πάντα: ἔστιν ἄρα καὶ ὡς ὅλη ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς ὅλην τὴν ΓΖ, οὕτως ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. σύμμετρος δὲ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ μήκει. σύμμετρος ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΕ μὲν τῇ ΓΖ, ἡ δὲ ΒΕ τῇ ΔΖ. καὶ αἱ ΑΕ, ΕΒ ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: καὶ αἱ ΓΖ, ΖΔ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι. [ἀποτομὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΔ. Λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ τῇ τάξει ἡ αὐτὴ τῇ ΑΒ.] Ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ, οὕτως ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ, ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΒ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΔ. ἤτοι δὴ ἡ ΑΕ τῆς ΕΒ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ ἢ τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου. εἰ μὲν οὖν ἡ ΑΕ τῆς ΕΒ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ, καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῆς ΖΔ μεῖζον δυνήσεται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ. καὶ εἰ μὲν σύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ μήκει, καὶ ἡ ΓΖ, εἰ δὲ ἡ ΒΕ, καὶ ἡ ΔΖ, εἰ δὲ οὐδετέρα τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ, καὶ οὐδετέρα τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ. εἰ δὲ ἡ ΑΕ [τῆς ΕΒ] μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ, καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῆς ΖΔ μεῖζον δυνήσεται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ. καὶ εἰ μὲν σύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ μήκει, καὶ ἡ ΓΖ, εἰ δὲ ἡ ΒΕ, καὶ ἡ ΔΖ, εἰ δὲ οὐδετέρα τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ, οὐδετέρα τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ. Ἀποτομὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΔ καὶ τῇ τάξει ἡ αὐτὴ τῇ ΑΒ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

A straight line commensurable in length with an apotome is an apotome and the same in order. Let AB be an apotome, and let CD be commensurable in length with AB; I say that CD is also an apotome and the same in order with AB. For, since AB is an apotome, let BE be the annex to it; therefore AE, EB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. [X. 73] Let it be contrived that the ratio of BE to DF is the same as the ratio of AB to CD; [VI. 12] therefore also, as one is to one, so are all to all; [V. 12] therefore also, as the whole AE is to the whole CF, so is AB to CD. But AB is commensurable in length with CD. Therefore AE is also commensurable with CF, and BE with DF. [X. 11] And AE, EB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; therefore CF, FD are also rational straight lines commensurable in square only. [X. 13] Now since, as AE is to CF, so is BE to DF, alternately therefore, as AE is to EB, so is CF to FD. [V. 16] And the square on AE is greater than the square on EB either by the square on a straight line commensurable with AE or by the square on a straight line incommensurable with it. If then the square on AE is greater than the square on EB by the square on a straight line commensurable with AE, the square on CF will also be greater than the square on FD by the square on a straight line commensurable with CF. [X. 14] And, if AE is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out, CF is so also, [X. 12] if BE, then DF also, [id.] and, if neither of the straight lines AE, EB, then neither of the straight lines CF, FD. [X. 13] But, if the square on AE is greater than the square on EB by the square on a straight line incommensurable with AE, the square on CF will also be greater than the square on FD by the square on a straight line incommensurable with CF. [X. 14] And, if AE is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out, CF is so also, if BE, then DF also, [X. 12] and, if neither of the straight lines AE, EB, then neither of the straight lines CF, FD. [X. 13]