Book 10 Proposition 91
Ἐὰν χωρίον περιέχηται ὑπὸ ῥητῆς καὶ ἀποτομῆς πρώτης, ἡ τὸ χωρίον δυναμένη ἀποτομή ἐστιν. Περιεχέσθω γὰρ χωρίον τὸ ΑΒ ὑπὸ ῥητῆς τῆς ΑΓ καὶ ἀποτομῆς πρώτης τῆς ΑΔ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ τὸ ΑΒ χωρίον δυναμένη ἀποτομή ἐστιν. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἀποτομή ἐστι πρώτη ἡ ΑΔ, ἔστω αὐτῇ προσαρμόζουσα ἡ ΔΗ: αἱ ΑΗ, ΗΔ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι. καὶ ὅλη ἡ ΑΗ σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ τῇ ΑΓ, καὶ ἡ ΑΗ τῆς ΗΔ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ μήκει: ἐὰν ἄρα τῷ τετάρτῳ μέρει τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΗ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΑΗ παραβληθῇ ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει τετραγώνῳ, εἰς σύμμετρα αὐτὴν διαιρεῖ. τετμήσθω ἡ ΔΗ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε, καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΑΗ παραβεβλήσθω ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει τετραγώνῳ, καὶ ἔστω τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΖ, ΖΗ: σύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΗ. καὶ διὰ τῶν Ε, Ζ, Η σημείων τῇ ΑΓ παράλληλοι ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΕΘ, ΖΙ, ΗΚ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ σύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΗ μήκει, καὶ ἡ ΑΗ ἄρα ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΖ, ΖΗ σύμμετρός ἐστι μήκει. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΑΗ σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ΑΓ: καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΑΖ, ΖΗ σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ΑΓ μήκει. καί ἐστι ῥητὴ ἡ ΑΓ: ῥητὴ ἄρα καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΖ, ΖΗ: ὥστε καὶ ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΙ, ΖΚ ῥητόν ἐστιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ σύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΕΗ μήκει, καὶ ἡ ΔΗ ἄρα ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΔΕ, ΕΗ σύμμετρός ἐστι μήκει. ῥητὴ δὲ ἡ ΔΗ καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΑΓ μήκει: ῥητὴ ἄρα καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΔΕ, ΕΗ καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΑΓ μήκει: ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΔΘ, ΕΚ μέσον ἐστίν. Κείσθω δὴ τῷ μὲν ΑΙ ἴσον τετράγωνον τὸ ΛΜ, τῷ δὲ ΖΚ ἴσον τετράγωνον ἀφῃρήσθω κοινὴν γωνίαν ἔχον αὐτῷ τὴν ὑπὸ ΛΟΜ τὸ ΝΞ: περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα διάμετρόν ἐστι τὰ ΛΜ, ΝΞ τετράγωνα. ἔστω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΟΡ, καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΖ, ΖΗ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τετραγώνῳ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΕΗ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΗ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ. ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΕΗ, οὕτως τὸ ΑΙ πρὸς τὸ ΕΚ, ὡς δὲ ἡ ΕΗ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ, οὕτως ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΚ πρὸς τὸ ΚΖ: τῶν ἄρα ΑΙ, ΚΖ μέσον ἀνάλογόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΚ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τῶν ΛΜ, ΝΞ μέσον ἀνάλογον τὸ ΜΝ, ὡς ἐν τοῖς ἔμπροσθεν ἐδείχθη, καί ἐστι τὸ [μὲν] ΑΙ τῷ ΛΜ τετραγώνῳ ἴσον, τὸ δὲ ΚΖ τῷ ΝΞ: καὶ τὸ ΜΝ ἄρα τῷ ΕΚ ἴσον ἐστίν. ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν ΕΚ τῷ ΔΘ ἐστιν ἴσον, τὸ δὲ ΜΝ τῷ ΛΞ: τὸ ἄρα ΔΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΥΦΧ γνώμονι καὶ τῷ ΝΞ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ ΑΚ ἴσον τοῖς ΛΜ, ΝΞ τετραγώνοις: λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΑΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΣΤ. τὸ δὲ ΣΤ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΛΝ ἐστι τετράγωνον: τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΛΝ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΑΒ: ἡ ΛΝ ἄρα δύναται τὸ ΑΒ. Λέγω δή, ὅτι ἡ ΛΝ ἀποτομή ἐστιν. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ ῥητόν ἐστιν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΙ, ΖΚ, καί ἐστιν ἴσον τοῖς ΛΜ, ΝΞ, καὶ ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΛΜ, ΝΞ ῥητόν ἐστιν, τουτέστι τὸ ἀπὸ ἑκατέρας τῶν ΛΟ, ΟΝ: καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΛΟ, ΟΝ ῥητή ἐστιν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ μέσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΔΘ καί ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ΛΞ, μέσον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΛΞ. ἐπεὶ οὖν τὸ μὲν ΛΞ μέσον ἐστίν, τὸ δὲ ΝΞ ῥητόν, ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΛΞ τῷ ΝΞ: ὡς δὲ τὸ ΛΞ πρὸς τὸ ΝΞ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΛΟ πρὸς τὴν ΟΝ: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΛΟ τῇ ΟΝ μήκει. καί εἰσιν ἀμφότεραι ῥηταί: αἱ ΛΟ, ΟΝ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: ἀποτομὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΛΝ. καὶ δύναται τὸ ΑΒ χωρίον: ἡ ἄρα τὸ ΑΒ χωρίον δυναμένη ἀποτομή ἐστιν. Ἐὰν ἄρα χωρίον περιέχηται ὑπὸ ῥητῆς, καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς.
If an area be contained by a rational straight line and a first apotome, the “side” of the area is an apotome. For let the area AB be contained by the rational straight line AC and the first apotome AD; I say that the “side” of the area AB is an apotome. For, since AD is a first apotome, let DG be its annex; therefore AG, GD are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. [X. 73] And the whole AG is commensurable with the rational straight line AC set out, and the square on AG is greater than the square on GD by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with AG; [X. Deff. III. 1] if therefore there be applied to AG a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on DG and deficient by a square figure, it divides it into commensurable parts. [X. 17] Let DG be bisected at E, let there be applied to AG a parallelogram equal to the square on EG and deficient by a square figure, and let it be the rectangle AF, FG; therefore AF is commensurable with FG. And through the points E, F, G let EH, FI, GK be drawn parallel to AC. Now, since AF is commensurable in length with FG, therefore AG is also commensurable in length with each of the straight lines AF, FG. [X. 15] But AG is commensurable with AC; therefore each of the straight lines AF, FG is commensurable in length with AC. [X. 12] And AC is rational; therefore each of the straight lines AF, FG is also rational, so that each of the rectangles AI, FK is also rational. [X. 19] Now, since DE is commensurable in length with EG, therefore DG is also commensurable in length with each of the straight lines DE, EG. [X. 15] But DG is rational and incommensurable in length with AC; therefore each of the straight lines DE, EG is also rational and incommensurable in length with AC; [X. 13] therefore each of the rectangles DH, EK is medial. [X. 21] Now let the square LM be made equal to AI, and let there be subtracted the square NO having a common angle with it, the angle LPM, and equal to FK; therefore the squares LM, NO are about the same diameter. [VI. 26] Let PR be their diameter, and let the figure be drawn. Since then the rectangle contained by AF, FG is equal to the square on EG, therefore, as AF is to EG, so is EG to FG. [VI. 17] But, as AF is to EG, so is AI to EK, and, as EG is to FG, so is EK to KF; [VI. 1] therefore EK is a mean proportional between AI, KF. [V. 11] But MN is also a mean proportional between LM, NO, as was before proved, [Lemma after X. 53] and AI is equal to the square LM, and KF to NO; therefore MN is also equal to EK. But EK is equal to DH, and MN to LO; therefore DK is equal to the gnomon UVW and NO. But AK is also equal to the squares LM, NO; therefore the remainder AB is equal to ST. But ST is the square on LN; therefore the square on LN is equal to AB; therefore LN is the “side” of AB. I say next that LN is an apotome. For, since each of the rectangles AI, FK is rational, and they are equal to LM, NO, therefore each of the squares LM, NO, that is, the squares on LP, PN respectively, is also rational; therefore each of the straight lines LP, PN is also rational. Again, since DH is medial and is equal to LO, therefore LO is also medial. Since then LO is medial, while NO is rational, therefore LO is incommensurable with NO. But, as LO is to NO, so is LP to PN; [VI. 1] therefore LP is incommensurable in length with PN. [X. 11] And both are rational; therefore LP, PN are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; therefore LN is an apotome. [X. 73] And it is the “side” of the area AB; therefore the “side” of the area AB is an apotome.