# Book 8 Proposition 3

Ἐὰν ὦσιν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς, οἱ ἄκροι αὐτῶν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Ἔστωσαν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς οἱ Α, Β, Γ, Δ: λέγω, ὅτι οἱ ἄκροι αὐτῶν οἱ Α, Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Εἰλήφθωσαν γὰρ δύο μὲν ἀριθμοὶ ἐλάχιστοι ἐν τῷ τῶν Α, Β, Γ, Δ λόγῳ οἱ Ε, Ζ, τρεῖς δὲ οἱ Η, Θ, Κ, καὶ ἑξῆς ἑνὶ πλείους, ἕως τὸ λαμβανόμενον πλῆθος ἴσον γένηται τῷ πλήθει τῶν Α, Β, Γ, Δ. εἰλήφθωσαν καὶ ἔστωσαν οἱ Λ, Μ, Ν, Ξ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Ε, Ζ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς, πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἑκάτερος τῶν Ε, Ζ ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Η, Κ πεποίηκεν, ἑκάτερον δὲ τῶν Η, Κ πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Λ, Ξ πεποίηκεν, καὶ οἱ Η, Κ ἄρα καὶ οἱ Λ, Ξ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α, Β, Γ, Δ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς, εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ Λ, Μ, Ν, Ξ ἐλάχιστοι ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ ὄντες τοῖς Α, Β, Γ, Δ, καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν Α, Β, Γ, Δ τῷ πλήθει τῶν Λ, Μ, Ν, Ξ, ἕκαστος ἄρα τῶν Α, Β, Γ, Δ ἑκάστῳ τῶν Λ, Μ, Ν, Ξ ἴσος ἐστίν: ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ μὲν Α τῷ Λ, ὁ δὲ Δ τῷ Ξ. καί εἰσιν οἱ Λ, Ξ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους. καὶ οἱ Α, Δ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If as many numbers as we please in continued proportion be the least of those which have the same ratio with them, the extremes of them are prime to one another. Let as many numbers as we please, A, B, C, D, in continued proportion be the least of those which have the same ratio with them; I say that the extremes of them A, D are prime to one another. For let two numbers E, F, the least that are in the ratio of A, B, C, D, be taken, [VII. 33] then three others G, H, K with the same property; and others, more by one continually, [VIII. 2] until the multitude taken becomes equal to the multitude of the numbers A, B, C, D. Let them be taken, and let them be L, M, N, O. Now, since E, F are the least of those which have the same ratio with them, they are prime to one another. [VII. 22] And, since the numbers E, F by multiplying themselves respectively have made the numbers G, K, and by multiplying the numbers G, K respectively have made the numbers L, O, [VIII. 2, Por.] therefore both G, K and L, O are prime to one another. [VII. 27] And, since A, B, C, D are the least of those which have the same ratio with them, while L, M, N, O are the least that are in the same ratio with A, B, C, D, and the multitude of the numbers A, B, C, D is equal to the multitude of the numbers L, M, N, O, therefore the numbers A, B, C, D are equal to the numbers L, M, N, O respectively; therefore A is equal to L, and D to O. And L, O are prime to one another.