# Book 8 Proposition 8

Ἐὰν δύο ἀριθμῶν μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτωσιν ἀριθμοί, ὅσοι εἰς αὐτοὺς μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτουσιν ἀριθμοί, τοσοῦτοι καὶ εἰς τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας [αὐτοῖς] μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπεσοῦνται. Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμῶν τῶν Α, Β μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπιπτέτωσαν ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Γ, Δ, καὶ πεποιήσθω ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ: λέγω, ὅτι ὅσοι εἰς τοὺς Α, Β μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπεπτώκασιν ἀριθμοί, τοσοῦτοι καὶ εἰς τοὺς Ε, Ζ μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπεσοῦνται. Ὅσοι γάρ εἰσι τῷ πλήθει οἱ Α, Β, Γ, Δ, τοσοῦτοι εἰλήφθωσαν ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α, Γ, Δ, Β οἱ Η, Θ, Κ, Λ: οἱ ἄρα ἄκροι αὐτῶν οἱ Η, Λ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α, Γ, Δ, Β τοῖς Η, Θ, Κ, Λ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσίν, καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν Α, Γ, Δ, Β τῷ πλήθει τῶν Η, Θ, Κ, Λ, δι' ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Λ. ὡς δὲ ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Λ, οὕτως ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ. οἱ δὲ Η, Λ πρῶτοι, οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι, οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα, τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον. ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Η τὸν Ε μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Λ τὸν Ζ. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Η τὸν Ε μετρεῖ, τοσαυτάκις καὶ ἑκάτερος τῶν Θ, Κ ἑκάτερον τῶν Μ, Ν μετρείτω: οἱ Η, Θ, Κ, Λ ἄρα τοὺς Ε, Μ, Ν, Ζ ἰσάκις μετροῦσιν. οἱ Η, Θ, Κ, Λ ἄρα τοῖς Ε, Μ, Ν, Ζ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσίν. ἀλλὰ οἱ Η, Θ, Κ, Λ τοῖς Α, Γ, Δ, Β ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσίν: καὶ οἱ Α, Γ, Δ, Β ἄρα τοῖς Ε, Μ, Ν, Ζ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσίν. οἱ δὲ Α, Γ, Δ, Β ἑξῆς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν: καὶ οἱ Ε, Μ, Ν, Ζ ἄρα ἑξῆς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν. ὅσοι ἄρα εἰς τοὺς Α, Β μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπεπτώκασιν ἀριθμοί, τοσοῦτοι καὶ εἰς τοὺς Ε, Ζ μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπεπτώκασιν ἀριθμοί: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If between two numbers there fall numbers in continued proportion with them, then, however many numbers fall between them in continued proportion, so many will also fall in continued proportion between the numbers which have the same ratio with the original numbers. Let the numbers C, D fall between the two numbers A, B in continued proportion with them, and let E be made in the same ratio to F as A is to B; I say that, as many numbers as have fallen between A, B in continued proportion, so many will also fall between E, F in continued proportion. For, as many as A, B, C, D are in multitude, let so many numbers G, H, K, L, the least of those which have the same ratio with A, C, D, B, be taken; [VII. 33] therefore the extremes of them G, L are prime to one another. [VIII. 3] Now, since A, C, D, B are in the same ratio with G, H, K, L, and the multitude of the numbers A, C, D, B is equal to the multitude of the numbers G, H, K, L, therefore, ex aequali, as A is to B, so is G to L. [VII. 14] But, as A is to B, so is E to F; therefore also, as G is to L, so is E to F. But G, L are prime, primes are also least, [VII. 21] and the least numbers measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times, the greater the greater and the less the less, that is, the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent. [VII. 20] Therefore G measures E the same number of times as L measures F. Next, as many times as G measures E, so many times let H, K also measure M, N respectively; therefore G, H, K, L measure E, M, N, F the same number of times. Therefore G, H, K, L are in the same ratio with E, M, N, F. [VII. Def. 20] But G, H, K, L are in the same ratio with A, C, D, B; therefore A, C, D, B are also in the same ratio with E, M, N, F. But A, C, D, B are in continued proportion; therefore E, M, N, F are also in continued proportion.