# Book 9 Proposition 13

Ἐὰν ἀπὸ μονάδος ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ὦσιν, ὁ δὲ μετὰ τὴν μονάδα πρῶτος ᾖ, ὁ μέγιστος ὑπ' οὐδενὸς [ἄλλου] μετρηθήσεται παρὲξ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων ἐν τοῖς ἀνάλογον ἀριθμοῖς. Ἔστωσαν ἀπὸ μονάδος ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον οἱ Α, Β, Γ, Δ, ὁ δὲ μετὰ τὴν μονάδα ὁ Α πρῶτος ἔστω: λέγω, ὅτι ὁ μέγιστος αὐτῶν ὁ Δ ὑπ' οὐδενὸς ἄλλου μετρηθήσεται παρὲξ τῶν Α, Β, Γ. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν, μετρείσθω ὑπὸ τοῦ Ε, καὶ ὁ Ε μηδενὶ τῶν Α, Β, Γ ἔστω ὁ αὐτός. φανερὸν δή, ὅτι ὁ Ε πρῶτος οὔκ ἐστιν. εἰ γὰρ ὁ Ε πρῶτός ἐστι καὶ μετρεῖ τὸν Δ, καὶ τὸν Α μετρήσει πρῶτον ὄντα μὴ ὢν αὐτῷ ὁ αὐτός: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα ὁ Ε πρῶτός ἐστιν. σύνθετος ἄρα. πᾶς δὲ σύνθετος ἀριθμὸς ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται: ὁ Ε ἄρα ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. λέγω δή, ὅτι ὑπ' οὐδενὸς ἄλλου πρώτου μετρηθήσεται πλὴν τοῦ Α. εἰ γὰρ ὑφ' ἑτέρου μετρεῖται ὁ Ε, ὁ δὲ Ε τὸν Δ μετρεῖ, κἀκεῖνος ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρήσει: ὥστε καὶ τὸν Α μετρήσει πρῶτον ὄντα μὴ ὢν αὐτῷ ὁ αὐτός: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ὁ Α ἄρα τὸν Ε μετρεῖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ μετρεῖ, μετρείτω αὐτὸν κατὰ τὸν Ζ. λέγω, ὅτι ὁ Ζ οὐδενὶ τῶν Α, Β, Γ ἐστιν ὁ αὐτός. εἰ γὰρ ὁ Ζ ἑνὶ τῶν Α, Β, Γ ἐστιν ὁ αὐτὸς καὶ μετρεῖ τὸν Δ κατὰ τὸν Ε, καὶ εἷς ἄρα τῶν Α, Β, Γ τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὸν Ε. ἀλλὰ εἷς τῶν Α, Β, Γ τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατά τινα τῶν Α, Β, Γ: καὶ ὁ Ε ἄρα ἑνὶ τῶν Α, Β, Γ ἐστιν ὁ αὐτός: ὅπερ οὐχ ὑπόκειται. οὐκ ἄρα ὁ Ζ ἑνὶ τῶν Α, Β, Γ ἐστιν ὁ αὐτός. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι μετρεῖται ὁ Ζ ὑπὸ τοῦ Α, δεικνύντες πάλιν, ὅτι ὁ Ζ οὔκ ἐστι πρῶτος. εἰ γάρ, καὶ μετρεῖ τὸν Δ, καὶ τὸν Α μετρήσει πρῶτον ὄντα μὴ ὢν αὐτῷ ὁ αὐτός: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον: οὐκ ἄρα πρῶτός ἐστιν ὁ Ζ: σύνθετος ἄρα. ἅπας δὲ σύνθετος ἀριθμὸς ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται: ὁ Ζ ἄρα ὑπὸ πρώτου τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. λέγω δή, ὅτι ὑφ' ἑτέρου πρώτου οὐ μετρηθήσεται πλὴν τοῦ Α. εἰ γὰρ ἕτερός τις πρῶτος τὸν Ζ μετρεῖ, ὁ δὲ Ζ τὸν Δ μετρεῖ, κἀκεῖνος ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρήσει: ὥστε καὶ τὸν Α μετρήσει πρῶτον ὄντα μὴ ὢν αὐτῷ ὁ αὐτός: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. ὁ Α ἄρα τὸν Ζ μετρεῖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὸν Ζ, ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν: ὁ ἄρα ἐκ τῶν Α, Γ ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Ε, Ζ. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Γ. ὁ δὲ Α τὸν Ε μετρεῖ: καὶ ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Γ μετρεῖ. μετρείτω αὐτὸν κατὰ τὸν Η. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι ὁ Η οὐδενὶ τῶν Α, Β ἐστιν ὁ αὐτός, καὶ ὅτι μετρεῖται ὑπὸ τοῦ Α. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ζ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὸν Η, ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Η πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν: ὁ ἄρα ἐκ τῶν Α, Β ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Ζ, Η. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Ζ, ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Β. μετρεῖ δὲ ὁ Α τὸν Ζ: μετρεῖ ἄρα καὶ ὁ Η τὸν Β. μετρείτω αὐτὸν κατὰ τὸν Θ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι ὁ Θ τῷ Α οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ αὐτός. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Η τὸν Β μετρεῖ κατὰ τὸν Θ, ὁ Η ἄρα τὸν Θ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν: ὁ ἄρα ὑπὸ Θ, Η ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α τετραγώνῳ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Α, ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Η. μετρεῖ δὲ ὁ Α τὸν Η: μετρεῖ ἄρα καὶ ὁ Θ τὸν Α πρῶτον ὄντα μὴ ὢν αὐτῷ ὁ αὐτός: ὅπερ ἄτοπον. οὐκ ἄρα ὁ μέγιστος ὁ Δ ὑπὸ ἑτέρου ἀριθμοῦ μετρηθήσεται παρὲξ τῶν Α, Β, Γ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If as many numbers as we please beginning from an unit be in continued proportion, and the number after the unit be prime, the greatest will not be measured by any except those which have a place among the proportional numbers. Let there be as many numbers as we please, A, B, C, D, beginning from an unit and in continued proportion, and let A, the number after the unit, be prime; I say that D, the greatest of them, will not be measured by any other number except A, B, C. For, if possible, let it be measured by E, and let E not be the same with any of the numbers A, B, C. It is then manifest that E is not prime. For, if E is prime and measures D, it will also measure A [IX. 12], which is prime, though it is not the same with it: which is impossible. Therefore E is not prime. Therefore it is composite. But any composite number is measured by some prime number; [VII. 31] therefore E is measured by some prime number. I say next that it will not be measured by any other prime except A. For, if E is measured by another, and E measures D, that other will also measure D; so that it will also measure A [IX. 12], which is prime, though it is not the same with it: which is impossible. Therefore A measures E. And, since E measures D, let it measure it according to F. I say that F is not the same with any of the numbers A, B, C. For, if F is the same with one of the numbers A, B, C, and measures D according to E, therefore one of the numbers A, B, C also measures D according to E. But one of the numbers A, B, C measures D according to some one of the numbers A, B, C; [IX. 11] therefore E is also the same with one of the numbers A, B, C: which is contrary to the hypothesis. Therefore F is not the same as any one of the numbers A, B, C. Similarly we can prove that F is measured by A, by proving again that F is not prime. For, if it is, and measures D, it will also measure A [IX. 12], which is prime, though it is not the same with it: which is impossible; therefore F is not prime. Therefore it is composite. But any composite number is measured by some prime number; [VII. 31] therefore F is measured by some prime number. I say next that it will not be measured by any other prime except A. For, if any other prime number measures F, and F measures D, that other will also measure D; so that it will also measure A [IX. 12], which is prime, though it is not the same with it: which is impossible. Therefore A measures F. And, since E measures D according to F, therefore E by multiplying F has made D. But, further, A has also by multiplying C made D; [IX. 11] therefore the product of A, C is equal to the product of E, F. Therefore, proportionally, as A is to E, so is F to C. [VII. 19] But A measures E; therefore F also measures C. Let it measure it according to G. Similarly, then, we can prove that G is not the same with any of the numbers A, B, and that it is measured by A. And, since F measures C according to G therefore F by multiplying G has made C. But, further, A has also by multiplying B made C; [IX. 11] therefore the product of A, B is equal to the product of F, G. Therefore, proportionally, as A is to F, so is G to B. [VII. 19] But A measures F; therefore G also measures B. Let it measure it according to H. Similarly then we can prove that H is not the same with A. And, since G measures B according to H, therefore G by multiplying H has made B. But further A has also by multiplying itself made B; [IX. 8] therefore the product of H, G is equal to the square on A. Therefore, as H is to A, so is A to G. [VII. 19] But A measures G; therefore H also measures A, which is prime, though it is not the same with it: which is absurd.